COA (Computer Organisation and Architecture


CSE 203 C Computer Organisation and architecture


Course Objectives:

  1. To study functional blocks of a computer and their working.
  2. To learn CPU organization along with Instruction Level Architecture, different addressing modes and pipelining.
  3. To learn about I/O devices and their working principles.
  4. The understand the current state of art in memory system design

Unit I

Functional blocks of a computer :  CPU, Memory, input/output  subsystems, control unit , Multilevel viewpoint of a machine: digital logic, micro architecture, ISA, operating systems, high level language , RTL Computer Buses ( basic design using multiplexers), Bus width, Bus clocking( synchronous , asynchronous), bus arbitration, Bus examples( ISA bus, PCI bus, Universal serial bus) .

Data representation: signed number representation,           fixed    and      floating point representations, character representation.  Computer   arithmetic: integer addition and subtraction,  ripple  carry  adder, carry  look-ahead  adder,  etc., multiplication  –  shift-and add, Booth multiplier, carry save multiplier 

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Unit II

CPU Organization: Instruction  set  architecture  of  a  CPU, interpretation   of instructions, Instruction set based classification of processors (RISC, CISC, and their comparison), CPU Architecture types (accumulator, register, stack, memory/ register) Instruction cycle (Fetch-Decode-Execute)

Addressing modes: (register, immediate, direct, indirect, indexed); Operations in the instruction set; Arithmetic and Logical, Data Transfer, Control Flow; Instruction set formats (fixed, variable, hybrid) Pipelining (basic concepts, throughput and speedup, hazards )

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Unit III

Input /Output & Control Unit:  Input Output Interface, Asynchronous data transfer (Strobe control, handshaking, serial transfer); Serial Vs parallel data transmission; Modes of data transfer, Programmed I/O,  Interrupt driven, Direct Memory access ( DMA).

Control Unit design:- Control unit design methods (hardwired & microprogrammed)  Control Memory, Address Sequencing, Micro instructions.

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Unit IV

Memory Organization: Memory device characteristics (access/ cycle time, cost per bit, volatility, storage density); Memory hierarchy; Main memory Design (Semiconductor RAM & ROM organization, memory expansion, Static & dynamic memory types, their comparison); Associative memory Design, Match logic, Locality of reference principle (Temporal & Spatial)

Cache mapping (Direct, associative, set associative); Cache writing policies (Copy-Back, Write-through); Virtual Memory (Address space, memory space, Address mapping using pages, Page replacement)

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  1. Computer System Architecture  by M. Mano,  Prentice-Hall.
  2. Structured Computer Organisation by A.S. Tanenbaum, 6th edition, Prentice-Hall of India, Eastern Economic Edition


  1. Computer Organization, 5th Edi, by Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesic,2002,  SafwatZaky.
  2. Computer Organization and Design, 2nd Ed., by David A. Patterson and  John L. Hennessy, Morgan 1997, Kauffmann.
  3. Computer Architecture and Organization, 3rd Edi, by John P. Hayes, 1998, TMH
  4. Computer Organisation& Architecture: Designing for performance by W. Stallings, 4th edition, 1996, Prentice-Hall International edition.

Course Outcomes:  After successful completion of the course students will learn the following:-

  • 1.  How Computer Systems work & the basic principles
  • 2.  Instruction Level Architecture and Instruction Execution pipelining, parallelism and microprogramming
  • 3.  How I/O devices are accessed and its principles.                              
  • 4.  The memory organization along with cache and virtual memory concepts.
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